Consumption patterns of grain-based foods among adults in Canada: Evidence from Canadian Community Health Survey – Nutrition 2015
Authors: Seyed H. Hosseini, Yanni Papanikolaou, Naorin Islam, Patil Rashmi, Arash Shamloo, and Hassan Vatanparast
In this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (CCHS) 2015 data to examine the consumption patterns of grain-based foods (GBFs) for Canadian adults. We used a k-mean cluster analysis based on the contribution of 21 grain-based foods to total energy intake of adults in Canada to find the dietary patterns of GBFs. Cluster analyses rendered seven dietary patterns including: ‘other bread’, ‘cake and cookies’, ‘pasta’, ‘rice’, ‘mixed’, ‘white bread’, and finally ‘whole wheat and whole-grain bread’. ‘No grain’ and ‘rice’ consumers had lower intakes of dietary fibre, folate, iron and calcium, which are the nutrients of public health concern in Canada. Adults consuming a ‘mixed grain’ dietary pattern had a greater daily intake of calcium, potassium, magnesium, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 than those in the ‘no grain’ dietary pattern. We also observed that a considerable proportion of individuals clustered in the ‘rice’ group are immigrants and belong to households with lower income levels.
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