The equity and effectiveness of achieving Canada’s voluntary sodium reduction guidance targets: A modelling study using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition
Authors: Brendan T. Smith, Salma Hack, Mahsa Jessri, JoAnne Arcand, Lindsay McLaren, Mary R. L'Abbé, Laura N. Anderson, Erin Hobin, David Hammond, Heather Manson, Laura C. Rosella, and Douglas G. Manuel
Background: High sodium intake is a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study estimated full compliance to Canada’s voluntary sodium reduction guidance (SRG) targets on social inequities and population sodium intake. Methods: We conducted a modeling study using n = 19,645, 24 h dietary recalls (Canadians – 2 years) from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (2015 CCHS-N). Multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean sodium intake in measured (in the 2015 CCHS-N) and modelled (achieving SRG targets) scenarios across education, income and food security. The percentage of Canadians with sodium intakes above chronic disease risk reduction (CDRR) thresholds was estimated using the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) method. Results: In children aged 2-8, achieving SRG targets reduced mean sodium intake differences between food secure and insecure households from 271 mg/day (95%CI: 75,468) to 83 mg/day (95%CI: -45,212); a finding consistent across education and income. Mean sodium intake inequities between low and high education households were eliminated for females aged 9-18 (96 mg/day, 95%CI: -149,341) and adults aged 19 and older (males: 148 mg/day, 95%CI: -30,327; female: -45 mg/day, 95%CI: -141,51). Despite these declines (after achieving the SRG targets) the majority of Canadians’ are above the CDRR thresholds. Conclusion: Achieving SRG targets would eliminate social inequities in sodium intake and reduce population sodium intake overall; however, additional interventions are required to reach recommended sodium levels.
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