Examining the effects of increased vitamin D fortification on dietary inadequacy in Canada
Authors: Yaseer A. Shakur, Wendy Lou, and Mary R. L'Abbe
OBJECTIVES: Despite mandatory fortification of milk and margarine, most Canadians have inadequate vitamin D intake and consequently poor vitamin D status, especially in the winter. Increasing vitamin D fortification is one possible strategy to address this inadequacy. The purpose of our study was to examine the modelled effect of increased vitamin D fortification on the prevalence of inadequacy and the percentage of intakes greater than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) using different fortification scenarios. METHODS: Dietary intakes (24-h recall) from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n=34,381) were used to model increased vitamin D levels in milk and the addition of vitamin D to cheese and yogurt at various levels to meet label claims of an “excellent source” based on the recommended dietary intakes. The Software for Intake Distribution Evaluation was used to estimate the prevalence of inadequacy and intakes >UL. RESULTS: Fortification of milk, yogurt and cheese at 6.75 u-g (270 IU)/serving led to more than doubling of vitamin D intakes across all sex/age groups and a drop in the prevalence of dietary inadequacy from >80% to <50% in all groups. Furthermore, no intakes approached the UL under any fortification scenario in any sex/age group. CONCLUSION: There is a pressing need to improve vitamin D status among Canadians. Increasing vitamin D fortification of dairy products, consistent with their positioning in Canada's Food Guide, can lead to increased intake without a risk of excess. This is a population-wide public health strategy that should be given consideration in Canada.
Please note that abstracts only appear in the language of the publication and might not have a translation.
Riediger ND, LaPlante J, Mudryj A, and Clair L. (2021).
Examining differences in diet quality between Canadian Indigenous and non-Indigenous adults: results from the 2004 and 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey Nutrition Surveys
Canadian Journal of Public Health
Kathleen N. Deering, Lisa M. Lix, Sharon G. Bruce, and Kue T. Young (2009).
Chronic diseases and risk factors in Canada's northern populations: Longitudinal and geographic comparisons
Canadian Journal of Public Health , 14-17
Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Kathleen Decker, Alain Demers, Jewel Samaddar, and Mahmoud Torabi (2017).
Geographic variation and factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence in Manitoba
Canadian Journal of Public Health
Christopher J. Ryan, Martin J. Cooke, Scott T. Leatherdale, Sharon I. Kirkpatrick, and Piotr Wilk (2015).
The correlates of current smoking among adult Métis: Evidence from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis supplement
Canadian Journal of Public Health , 271-276
Vahid Ravaghi, Carlos Quiñonez, and Paul J. Allison (2013).
Comparing inequalities in oral and general health: findings of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Canadian Journal of Public Health , e466-e471
Kelly Woltman and Bruce Newbold (2007).
Immigrant women and cervical cancer screening uptake: A multilevel analysis
Canadian Journal of Public Health , 470-476
Maegan V. Mazereeuw, Diana R. Withrow, E. Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, and Loraine D. Marrett (2018).
Cancer incidence in First Nation adults in Canada: Follow up of the 1991 census cohort (1992-2009)
Canadian Journal of Public Health , 700-709