Why many visible minority women in Canada do not participate in cervical cancer screening
Authors: Ernest Amankwaha, Emmanuel Ngwakongnwib, and Hude Quan
OBJECTIVE: To determine a high-risk group of visible minority women in Canada who do not participate in cervical cancer screening and the reasons why they do not participate. DESIGN: We combined two cycles of a large Canadian health survey, Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), to obtain a large sample size of visible minority women. Proportions of ‘never having a Papanicalaou (Pap) test’ and ‘not having a Pap test within the last three years’ were then calculated for different ethnic groups using sampling weights advised by Statistics Canada to account for the complex sampling procedure used in CCHS. A logistic regression model was developed to test the association between demographic and health-related variables and not having a Pap test. To identify visible minority women who were at a high risk of not having a Pap test, we stratified these women simultaneously on three variables that were significant in the logistic regression model. RESULTS: Visible minority women were more than twice as likely never to have had a Pap test. Among visible minority women, those who recently immigrated to Canada and did not have a regular physician had the highest risk for not having a Pap test. Common reasons reported for not having a Pap test included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. CONCLUSION: Visible minority women in Canada may not be participating in regular Pap testing because of cultural beliefs and a lack of an understanding of the importance of Pap testing. A culturally appropriate cervical cancer screening intervention program that involves members of visible minority communities may increase participation of this subgroup of Canadian women. This study provides preliminary information on why visible minority women in Canada do not participate in cervical cancer screening. However, the lumping together of all visible minority may obscure differences between different ethnic groups. Therefore, further research on each ethnic group is required to develop tailored culturally appropriate intervention.
Please note that abstracts only appear in the language of the publication and might not have a translation.
K. B. Newbold (2009).
The short-term health of Canada's new immigrant arrivals: Evidence from LSIC
Ethnicity and Health , 22-Jan
Christopher J. Ryan, Martin J. Cooke, Sharon I. Kirkpatrick, Scott T. Leatherdale, and Piotr Wilk (2018).
The correlates of physical activity among adult Métis
Ethnicity and Health , 629-648
Gerry Veenstra and Andrew C. Patterson (2016).
South Asian-White health inequalities in Canada: Intersections with gender and immigrant status
Ethnicity and Health , 639-648
Cynthia Chen, Peter Smith, and Cameron Mustard (2010).
The prevalence of over-qualification and its association with health status among occupationally active new immigrants to Canada
Ethnicity and Health , 601-619
Gerry Veenstra (2019).
Black, White, Black and White: Mixed race and health in Canada
Ethnicity and Health , 113-124
Cat Tuong Nguyen, Louise Fournier, Lise Bergeron, Pasquale Roberge, and Geneviève Barrette (2005).
Correlates of depressive and anxiety disorders among young Canadians
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 620-628