Socioeconomic Gradients in Prostate Cancer Incidence Among Canadian Males: A Trend Analysis From 1992 to 2010
Authors: Hajizadeh, M., Whelan, A., Johnston, G, and Urquhart, R.
Introduction: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and their trends over time will help inform public health interventions for cancer control. This study sought to investigate trends in socioeconomic inequalities in prostate cancer incidence among Canadian males. Methods: Using a census division level dataset (n = 280) constructed from the Canadian Cancer Registry, Canadian Census of Population (1992, 1996, 2001, 2006) and 2011 National Household Survey, we examined the effect of socioeconomic status on prostate cancer incidence among Canadian males between 1992 and 2010. The age-adjusted concentration index was used to quantify education/income-related inequalities in prostate cancer incidence. Results: The crude prostate cancer incidence increased from 115 to 137 per 100 000 males in Canada from 1992 to 2010 with a peak in 2007. The rate increased significantly in all but three of four western provinces. The age-adjusted concentration index showed a higher concentration of prostate cancer diagnoses among males living in high-income neighbourhoods in Canada in particular from 1996 to 2005. In contrast, the index was higher among males living in less-educated neighbourhoods in the most recent study years (2006?2010). Conclusions: The concentration of new prostate cancer cases among high-income populations in Canada may be explained by the rise of opportunistic screening of asymptomatic males; however, this should be studied in further detail. Since we found a higher incidence rate of prostate cancer among less-educated males in Canada in recent years, risk-benefit investigation of primary prevention and opportunistic screening for less-educated males is advised.
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