Muslims’ political and civic incorporation in France and Canada: Testing models of participation
Authors: Emily Laxer, Jeffrey G. Reitz, and Patrick Simon
This study examines the impact of national contexts on the political and civic incorporation of Muslim minorities by comparing France and Canada, with their sharply contrasting national integration ‘models’. Using large and comparable national surveys of immigrant minorities (French Trajectories and Origins Survey, 2008; Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey, 2002), we analyse three interrelated dimensions of political and civic incorporation: acquiring citizenship, voting, and association membership. Our findings suggest a limited effect of national ‘models’ on these outcomes. While citizenship law produces lower naturalisation rates for all non-European-origin immigrants in France compared to Canada – with notably lower rates among French Muslims – Muslims and other non-European minorities are less likely to vote in Canada but not in France. Moreover, association membership positively influences citizenship in France but not in Canada. We conclude that the main effect of national ‘models’ on minorities’ political and civic incorporation occurs through differences in citizenship law itself.
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