Common and unique risk factors and comorbidity for 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among Canadians
Authors: Xiangfei Meng and Carl D'Arcy
Objective: To explore the common and unique risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders. What sociodemographic, psychological, and physical risk factors are associated with mood and anxiety disorders and their comorbidities? What is the impact of multiple risk factors? Method: Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being were analyzed. Appropriate sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimation were employed. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: The annual prevalence of any mood disorder was 5.2%, and of any anxiety disorder 4.7%. Major depressive episode was the most prevalent mood and anxiety disorder (4.8%), followed by social phobia, panic disorder, mania, and agoraphobia. Among people with mood and anxiety disorders, 22.4% had 2 or more disorders. Risk factors common to mood and anxiety disorders were being young, having lower household income, being unmarried, experiencing greater stress, having poorer mental health, and having a medical condition. Unique risk factors were found: major depressive episode and social phobia were associated with being born in Canada; panic disorder was associated with being Caucasian; lower education was associated with panic and agoraphobia; and poor physical health was associated with mania and agoraphobia. People who were young, unmarried, not fully employed, and had a medical condition, greater stress, poorer selfrated mental health, and dissatisfaction with life, were more likely to have a comorbid mood and (or) anxiety disorder. As the number of common risk factors increases, the probability of having mood and anxiety disorders also increases. Conclusions: Common and unique risk factors exist for mood and anxiety disorders. Risk factors are additive in increasing the likelihood of disease.
Please note that abstracts only appear in the language of the publication and might not have a translation.
Raymond Tempier, Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Fabien Gilbert, Koen Demyttenaere, Ronny Bruffaerts, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Isabelle Gasquet, Marje Lepnurm, Alain Lesage, Chassidy Puchala, Karen Mosier, and Viviane Kovess-Masféty (2010).
Comparing mental health of francophones in Canada, France, and Belgium: 12-Month and lifetime rates of mental health service use (Part 2)
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 295-304
Cat Tuong Nguyen, Louise Fournier, Lise Bergeron, Pasquale Roberge, and Geneviève Barrette (2005).
Correlates of depressive and anxiety disorders among young Canadians
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 620-628
Alice Charach, Hongmei Cao, Russell Schachar, and Teresa To (2006).
Correlates of methylphenidate use in Canadian children: A cross-sectional Study
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 17-26
Bolton SL, Afifi T.O., Mota N, Enns MW, de Graaf R, Marrie RA, Patten S, Lix L, and Sareen J (2021).
Correlates of attrition in the Canadian Armed Forces Members and Veterans Mental Health Follow-up Survey (CAFVMHS)
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Norbert Schmitz, Alain Lesage, and JianLi Wang (2009).
Should psychological distress screening in the community account for self-perceived health status?
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 526-533
Scott B. Patten, Jeanne V. A. Williams, Dina H. Lavorato, JianLi Wang, Keltie McDonald, and Andrew G. M. Bulloch (2015).
Descriptive epidemiology of major depressive disorder in Canada in 2012
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 23-30
Heather Stuart, Scott B. Patten, Michelle Koller, Geeta Modgill, and Tiina Liinamaa (2014).
Stigma in Canada: Results of a rapid response survey
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , S27-S33